Extend EGG

Egg.js is extensible and it provides multiple extension points to enhance the functionality of itself:

  • Application
  • Context
  • Request
  • Response
  • Helper

We could use the extension APIs to help us to develop, or extend the objects given above to enhance the functionality of egg as well while programming.

# Application

The object app is just the same aspect as the global application object in Koa. There should be only one app in your application, and it will be created by egg when the application is started.

# Access Method

  • ctx.app

  • You can access the Application object by using this.app in Controller, Middleware, Helper, Service. For instance, this.app.config will help you access the Config object.

  • The app object would be injected into the entry function as the first argument in app.js, like this:

    // app.js
    module.exports = app => {
    // here you can use the app object
    };

# How to extend

Egg will merge the object defined in app/extend/application.js with the prototype of Application object in Koa, then generate object app which is based on the extended prototype when application is started.

# Extend Methods

If we want to create a method app.foo(), we can do it like this: :

// app/extend/application.js
module.exports = {
foo(param) {
// `this` points to the object app, you can access other methods or property of app with this
},
};

# Extend Properties

Generally speaking, the calculation of properties only need to be done once, therefore we have to do some cache, otherwise it will degrade performance of the app as too much calculation would be going to do when accessing those properties several times.

So, it's recommended to use Symbol + Getter.

For example, if we would like to add a Getter property app.bar:

// app/extend/application.js
const BAR = Symbol('Application#bar');

module.exports = {
get bar() {
// `this` points to the app object, you can access other methods or property of app with this
if (!this[BAR]) {
// It should be more complex in real situation
this[BAR] = this.config.xx + this.config.yy;
}
return this[BAR];
},
};

# Context

Context means the context in Koa, which is a Request Level object. That is to say, every request from client will generate an Context instance. We usually write Context as ctx in short. In all the doc, both Context and ctx means the context object in Koa.

# Access Method

  • this in middleware is ctx, such as this.cookies.get('foo')
  • There are two different ways to write controller. If you use class to describe controller, you can use this.ctx to access Context. Or if you write as method, you can access Context with ctx directly.
  • this in helper, service points to the helper object and service object themselves. Simply use this.ctx to access Context object, such as this.ctx.cookies.get('foo').

# How to extend

Egg will merge the object defined in app/extend/context.js with the prototype of Context object in Koa. And it will generate a ctx object which is based on the extended prototype when deal with request.

# Extend Methods

For instance, we could add a method ctx.foo() in the following way:

// app/extend/context.js
module.exports = {
foo(param) {
// `this` points to the ctx object, you can access other methods or property of ctx
},
};

# Extend Properties

Generally speaking, the calculation of properties only need to do once, therefore we have to do some cache, otherwise it will degrade performance of the app as too much calculation would be going to do when access those properties several times.

So, it's recommended to use Symbol + Getter.

For example, if we would like to add a Getter property ctx.bar:

// app/extend/context.js
const BAR = Symbol('Context#bar');

module.exports = {
get bar() {
// `this` points to the ctx object, you can access other methods or property of ctx
if (!this[BAR]) {
// For example, we can get from header, but it should be more complex in real situation.
this[BAR] = this.get('x-bar');
}
return this[BAR];
},
};

# Request

Request object is the same as that in Koa, which is a Request Level object. It provides a great number of methods to help to access the properties and methods you need.

# Access Method

ctx.request

So many properties and methods in ctx can also be accessed in request object. For those properties and methods, it is just the same to access them by using either ctx or request, such as ctx.url === ctx.request.url.

Here are the properties and methods in ctx which can also be accessed by Request aliases: Koa - Request aliases

# How to extend

Egg will merge the object defined in app/extend/request.js and the prototype of request object built in egg. And it will generate a request object which is based on the extended prototype when deal with request.

For instance, we could add a property request.foo in the following way:

// app/extend/request.js
module.exports = {
get foo() {
return this.get('x-request-foo');
},
};

# Response

Response object is the same as that in Koa, which is a Request Level object. It provides a great number of methods to help to access the properties and methods you need.

# Access Method

ctx.response

So many properties and methods in ctx can also be accessed in response object. For those properties and methods, it is just the same to access them by using either ctx or response. For example ctx.status = 404 is the same as ctx.response.status = 404.

Here are the properties and methods in ctx which can also be accessed by Response aliases: Koa Response aliases

# How to extend

Egg will merge the object defined in app/extend/response.js and the prototype of response object build in egg. And it will generate a response object which is based on the extended prototype after dealt with request.

For instance, we could add a setter request.foo in the following way:

// app/extend/response.js
module.exports = {
set foo(value) {
this.set('x-response-foo', value);
},
};

Then we can use the setter like this: this.response.foo = 'bar';

# Helper

Function Helper can provides some useful utility functions.

We can put some utility functions we use ofter into helper.js as an individual function. Then we can write the complex codes in JavaScript, avoiding to write them everywhere. Besides, such a simple function like Helper allows to write test case much easier.

Egg has had some build-in Helper functions. We can write our own Helper as well.

# Access Method

Access helper object with ctx.helper, for example:

// Assume that home router has already defined in app/router.js
app.get('home', '/', 'home.index');

// Use helper to calculate the specific url path
ctx.helper.pathFor('home', { by: 'recent', limit: 20 })
// => /?by=recent&limit=20

# How to extend

Egg will merge the object defined in app/extend/helper.js and the prototype of helper object build in egg. And it will generate a helper object which is based on the extended prototype after dealt with request.

For instance, we could add a method helper.foo() in the following way:

// app/extend/helper.js
module.exports = {
foo(param) {
// // `this` points to the helper object, you can access other methods or property of helper
// this.ctx => context object
// this.app => application object
},
};

# Extend according to environment

Besides, we can extend the framework in an optional way according to the environment. For example, if you want mockXX() only be able to accessed when doing unittest:

// app/extend/application.unittest.js
module.exports = {
mockXX(k, v) {
}
};

This file will only be required under unittest environment.

Similarly, we could extend egg in this way for other object,such as Application, Context, Request, Response and Helper. See more on environment